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动名词和分词

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动名词 一.形式 类别 形式 一般式 完成式 二.用法 1.Teaching is my full-time job. 2.Their coming to help was a great encouragement to us. 3.Writing an English composition is not easy. _____________________________________________________________ 注①:动名词(短语)做主语还常用于下列结构: a. It’s no use sending him over. It’s too late already. It’s no good talking a lot without doing anything. It’s a waste of time arguing about it. ______________________________________________________________ b. There’s no joking about such matters. There’s no saying what he’ll be doing next. There’s no telling what he’s going to do. __________________________________________________________ 1.My job is teaching. 2.What’s troubling them is their not having enough machine tools. 3.Our duty is serving the people heart and soul. ___________________________________________________________ 1.I enjoy listening to music. 2.Do you mind my reading your paper? 3.They insisted on my staying there for supper. 4.We all avoided mentioning that matter. _____________________________________________________________ 能用动名词作宾语的动词: _____________________________________________________________ singing competition swimming pool dining car opening speech drinking cup typing paper living room waiting room writing desk washing machine frying-pan sleeping-pill walking stick teaching method _________________________________________________________ 三.动名词的复合结构 1.Tom’s /Their coming made us happy. 2.Do you mind Tom’/Tom/my/me opening the window. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ 主动 及物动词 被动 不及物动词 主动 1

分词 一.形式 一般式 现在分词 过去分词 二. 区分:现在分词: ______________________________ 过去分词: _______________________________ ◆ 1. This is an interesting story. Barking dogs seldom bite. That house being repaired is our library. Tell the children playing there not to make so much noise. They lived in a room facing the south. 2.The stolen car was found by the police last week. The speaker answered all the questions raised by the audience. __________________________________________________________ ◆1. The story is very interesting. The story he told us was very interesting. The play is exciting. He remained standing beside the table. 2. The window is broken. She was greatly excited. _________________________________________________________ ◆1. They entered the hall, talking and laughing. Being protected by two policemen, she felt quite safe. A young man, bringing his own food, volunteered as a guide for us. Not knowing her phone number, we cannot get in touch with her. Many of us, being so excited, could not go to sleep that night. Having been given such a good chance, how could she let it slip away? 2. Asked why he didn’t do it, he began to cry. Given more time, I’ll catch up with you. The teacher entered the classroom, followed by a group of students. ________________________________________________________ ★连词+分词(短语) 有时为使分词短语与主句关系更清楚,可在分词前加连词。

连词有: when,while, if though,after, before, as. 但分词的主语和主句的主语必须为同一个。

While waiting there, he saw two pretty girls come out of the building. 等在那儿时,他看见两个漂亮女孩走出大楼。

(waiting 和 saw 的主语相同) ◆1.They found the story interesting. You’ll find the subject being discussed everywhere. We heard the children shouting upstairs. I’m sorry to have kept you waiting so long. He tr to start the engine running. 2.We saw the thief caught by the police. People found the water polluted. 2 完成式 一般式被动 完成式被动 否定

Have you heard a pop song sung in Japanese. _________________________________________________________ ◆ Generally speaking, he gets up very early. Taking all things into consideration, we should accept their invitation. ◆ 分词作插入语 --分词作插入语的结构是固定的,意思上的主语并不是句子的主语。

generally speaking 一般说来 judging from 从…判断 all things considered 从整体来看 strictly speaking 严格的说 talking of (speaking of) 说道 taking all things into consideration 全面看来 Judging from his face, he must be ill. 从他的脸色看,他一定是病了。

Generally speaking, dogs can run faster than pigs. 总的来说,狗比猪跑得快。

三.独立主格结构的基本构成形式及功能 ①The experiment done, the students went on to take notes in the experiment report. 实验做完了,同学们继续在实验报告上做记录。

____________________________________________________________ ②Time permitting, we can have a walk around the playground after supper. 如果时间允许,晚饭后我们可以到操场上散散步。

_______________________________________________________ The last guest to arrive, our party was started. 最后一位客人到了,我们的晚会 就开始了。

____________________________________________________________ ④Computers very small, we can use them widely. 电脑虽小,我们却能广泛地利 用它们。

The clothes very dirty, you'd better wash them quickly. 衣服很脏,你快点儿洗 洗吧! ____________________________________________________________ ⑤ The meeting over, our headmaster soon left the meeting-room. 散会了,校 长很快就离开了会议室。

The lights off, we could not go on with the work. 灯熄了,我们不能继续工作了 ______________________________________________________________ ⑥Our English teacher came into the classroom, papers in hand. 我们的英语老 师走进了教室,手里拿着试卷。

There is a river in the valley, fresh flowers on the banks. 山谷中有一条河,河两 岸长满了鲜花。

________________________________________________________ 四.辨析 1.动名词作主语与不定式作主语的区别 It’s no use crying over spilt milk. ______ He realized that to go on like this was no use. ___________ __________________________________________ 2. 动名词作表语与不定式作表语的区别 My favourite sport is swimming. ______________ The first thing for us to do is to improve our pronunciation. _____________ ___________________________________________ 3

3.动名词作表语与现在分词作表语的区别 My job is looking after the children. Our duty is serving the people heart and soul. The situation is encouraging. The volleyball match we watched was very exciting. _______________________________________________ 4.动名词作定语和现在分词作定语的区别 There is a swimming pool (=a pool for swimming )in our school . His father works in a printing shop .(=a shop for printing ) Our teacher uses a very good teaching method .(= a method for teaching ) a developing country = a country which is developing a sleeping boy= a boy who is sleeping The man talking with my father is Mr. Wang.=The man who is talking with my father is Mr. Wang. ___________________________________________________________ 5.现在分词和不定式作结果状语的区别 The hurricane left , making huge damage. He hurr to the station, only to be told that the train had left. __________________________________________________________ 1.The first textbook ___for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century. A. have written B. to be written C. being written D. written 2. There was a terrible noise ___ the sudden burst of light. A. followed B. following C. to be followed D. being followed 3.What's the language ____ in Germany? A. speaking B. spoken C. be spoken D. to speak 4. ____ some officials, Napoleon inspected his army. A. Followed B. Followed by C. Being followed D. Having been followed 5. ___, liquids can be changed into gases. A. Heating B. To be heated C. Heated D. Heat 6. Mrs. Brown was much disappointed to see the washing machine she had had _______went wrong again. A.it B. it repaired C. repaired D. to be repaired 7.The result of the entrance exams was not made _____to the public until last Thursday. A.knowing B. known C.to know D.to be known 8.He fell down to the ground, his mouth____ and eyes_____. A. open, close B. opened, closed C. opened, close D. open, closed 9.The country has already sent up three unmanned spacecraft, the most recent____ at the end of last March. A. has been launched B. having been launched C. being launched D. to be launched 10. Hearing the _______news, we all felt_______ . A. encouraging; encouraging B. encouraged; encouraged C. encouraged; encouraging D. encouraging; encouraged 4

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