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1 煤层气 20 年发展回顾与"十三五"改革之路 Review on 20-Year CBM Development and Reform in the “13th Five-Year”PlanPeriod ——深化改革和依法开采助推煤层气开发利用的有序发展 —Deep reform and legal explorationwill push the orderly development of CBMexploration and exploitation. 洪涛/发展研究中心资源与环境研究所能源政策研究院主任 Hong Tao Director of EnergyPolicy Research Office, Research Institute of Resources and Environment, Development Research Centre of the State Council 煤层气开发利用事关煤矿安全、清洁低碳能源和节能减排大局。

20 世纪 90 年代以来,历届党和国家领 导人高度重视煤层气开发利用和构建本质安全型煤矿,就煤层气开发利用健康有序发展多次作出批示、指 示。

然而, “十二五”煤层气产量目标落空,产业发展再度引起广泛关注。

The exploration and exploitation of coal-bed methane (CBM) greatly concern the overall situation of coal mine safety, clean and low-carbon energy, and energy saving and emission reduction. Since the 1990s, the central government has paid high attention to the exploration and exploitation of CBM and the construction of intrinsically safe coal mines;at the same time, some instructions have given to the healthy and orderly development of coal-bed methane. However, the “12th Five-Year” output target ofCBM failed with its development once again arousing widespread concerns. “十二五”目标半数落空 Half targets of the “12th Five-Year” Plan failed 我国埋深 2000 米以浅的煤层气资源量约为 36.81 万亿立方米,居世界第 3 位。

经过大型油气田及煤 层气开发重大科技专项近 10 年攻关,建成了潘河国家示范工程等一批大型煤层气田,形成了 5 项综合配套 技术。

高煤阶煤层气实现了商业性规模化开发, 中煤阶煤层气获得重大突破,低煤阶煤层气成果遍地开花。

China owns CBM resources within the depth of 2000 meters of about 36.81 trillion m3, ranking the third place in the world. Through nearly10-year research of major science and technology l projects of large oil and gas fields and CBM development, Pan River National Demonstration Project and other large CBM fields have been built withfive comprehensive matching technologies formed. Furthermore, the high-rank CBMhas achieved large-scale commercial development, while the middle-rank one has made major breakthroughs, and the low-rank achievementshave become widespread.

图1

2 此外,党和国家领导高度重视煤层气开发利用。

2013 年 9 月 22 日,办公厅印发了《关于进一步 加快煤层气(煤矿瓦斯)抽采利用的意见》 (〔2013〕93 号) ,提出系列鼓励、扶持煤层气开发利用 政策。

2014 年 5 月 5 日至 15 日,习总、和副相继在财经领导小组办公 室《全球财经》213 期上批示促进煤层气产业健康有序发展。

Besides, the central government attaches great importance to the exploration and exploitation of CBM. On September 22nd, 2013, the State Council issued “Opinions onFurther AcceleratingCBM(Coal Mine Gas) Extractingand Utilization” (General Office of the State Council [2013] No. 93), which proposed a series of polices to encourage and support the exploration and exploitation of CBM. From May 5th to May 15th, 2014, the General Secretary Xi Jinping, Premier Li Ke and Vice Premier Zhang Gaoli have successivelyinstructed to promote the healthy and orderly development of Mayindustry in the 213th issueofGlobal Finance,, published byOffice of the Central Leading Group for Financial and Economic Affairs. 然而, “十二五”煤层气产量目标半数以上落空。

据国家发展改革委印发的《煤层气(煤矿瓦斯)开发 利用十二五规划》 , “十二五”末煤层气(煤矿瓦斯)规划产量 300 亿立方米,其中煤层气产量 160 亿立方 米、 基本全部利用, 煤矿瓦斯 140 亿立方米、 利用率 60%以上的发展目标。

2015 年全国煤层气 (煤矿瓦斯) 产量约 170.99 亿立方米,其中煤层气约 44.25 亿立方米,规划完成率约 27.66%、落空率约 72.34%, 利用量约为 38.56 亿立方米,规划完成率约 24.10%、落空率约 75.90%。

However, more than half of the targets in the “12th Five-Year” Plan failed. According to the “„12th Five-Year‟ Plan of CBM (CoalMineGas) Exploration and Exploitation” issued by the National Development and Reform Commission, up to the end of the “12th Five-Year”,the planned CBM (coalmine gas)output was 30 billion m3, of which plannedoutput of CBM was 16 billion m3 with full utilization on the whole, while planned output of coalmine gas was 14 billionm3with a utilization rate of more than 60%. In 2015, national CBMcoal mine gas) outputwas about 17.099 billion m3, of which approximately 4.425 billion m3wereCBM, with a planned completion rate ofabout 27.66% and a failure rate of 72.34%, and the utilization amount was 3.856 billion m3 or so with aplanned completion rate of24.10% and a failure rate of 75.90%. 制约和非法侵权拖累发展 Institutional constraints and illegal infringement drag development 投资短缺是制约煤层气发展的主要问题。

为解决煤矿瓦斯事故高发、 频发和伤亡人数居高不下等问题, 1996 年 3 月批准设立中联煤层气有限责任公司(以下简称中联公司) ,注册资本 1 亿元,由煤炭部、 地矿部、中石油各持股 1/3,挂靠煤炭部。

国际、国内经验表明,煤层气勘探开发同时具有技术密集、资金 密集特点,资金投资能力严重不足从一开始就成为突出制约因素。

为解决投资能力不足等问题,经过 7 次 股权变更,2010 年底中海油开始管理、2013 年全资控制中联公司。

中海油转向致密砂岩天然气,煤层气投 资比重逐年下降。

2015 年 1-6 月中联公司完成投资 6.15 亿元,完成全年计划的 23.88%,其中中海油 口径投资完成 2.25 亿元(含致密砂岩天然气) ,完成全年计划的 9.84%。

2015 年中联公司煤层气(含致 密天然气) 产量约 10 亿立方米, 仅为规划煤层气产量 35 亿立方米的 29. 35%, 规划落空率高达 70. 65%, 同时,由于市场不落实,超过 15%的煤层气产量被放空。

中联公司成立 20 年,尚未找到解决投资不足和放 空问题的合适。

图2

3 Investment shortage is a major problem restricting the development of CBM. To solve the high incidence, frequentand high casualties of coal mine gas explosion and other issues, in March 1996, the State Council approved the establishment of China United CBM Corporation, Ltd. (CUCBM), which owns a registered capital of 100 million yuanwith Ministry of Coal, Ministry of Geology and Mineral Resources, and China National Petroleum Corporation each holding one third of the share, affiliated to the Ministry of Coal. Both international and domestic experiences haveshowed that CBM exploration and development have the technology-intensive and capital-intensivefeatures, so that severe shortage of funds and investment ability hasbecome a prominent constraint from the beginning. To solve the problemssuch as insufficient investment capability, after the alterations of equities for seven times,China National Offshore Oil Corporation(CNOOC) began to manage CUCBM at the end of 2010 and wholly controlled it in 2013. CNOOC focused on tight sandstone gas, therefore, the proportion of CBM investment decreased year by year. From January to June in 2016, CUCBM invested 615 million yuan, and completed 23.88% of the annual plan, of which CNOOC completed a caliber investment of 225 million yuan (including tight sandstone gas), accountingfor 9 .84% of its annual plan. In 2015, CBM (including tight gas) output of CUCBM was about 10 billion cubic m3, only accounting for 29.35% of the planned output of 3.5 billion m3, with a failure rate reaching up to 70.65%;at the same time, because of the uncertainty of market, more than 15% of CBMleft unused. Although CUCBM hasbeen established for 20 years, the appropriate system to solve the problem of inadequate investment and high failure rate hasn‟t been found yet. 非法侵权是制约煤层气发展的突出问题。

在地方保护和利益驱动下,非法侵害煤层气矿权现象较为普 遍,山西尤为严重。

2011 年 3 月起,山西兰花煤层气有限公司进入中联公司已经获得探明储量的大宁煤层 气矿权区,强行实施煤层气开采、销售。

2013 年 9 月 9 日,晋城市国土资源局开出行政处罚决定书(晋市 国土资执罚〔2013〕001 号) ,认定兰花公司违反了《矿产资源法》第三条第二款、 《矿产资源法实施细则》 第五条第一款《矿产资源勘查区块登记管理办法》第九条第一款的规定,责令停止违法行为。

但兰花公司 置若罔闻,侵权行为一直延续至今,并导致山西省国土资源厅先后在太原中级法院、山西高级法院被诉行 政不作为。

山西等地的违法侵权已经上升为煤层气产业健康有序发展的最大阻力。

Illegal infringement is a prominent problem restricting the development of CBM. Driven by local protection and profits, illegal infringement has become very common, particularly serious in Shanxi Province. Since March2011, Shanxi Lanhua CBM Corporation, Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as Lanhua) has entered Daning mining-right block of CUCBM,of which the proven reserves have been confirmed. ButCBM exploration and sales were conducted by force by Lanhua. On September 9th, 2013, Jincheng Land Resources Bureau issuedWritten Decision of istrative Penalty (by JinchengLand Resources Bureau [2013] No. 001), affirmed Lanhua had violatedArticle 3Paragraph 2 of Mineral Resource Law, Article 1Paragraph 9of Implementation Regulation of Mineral Resource Law,Article 1 Paragraph 5 of Measures for Management on Registration of Mineral Resource Exploratory Block,and ordered Lanhuato stop illegal activities. But it has been deaf to the penaltydecision and continued its illegal activities to this day. Consequently Shanxi Provincial Department of Land and Resources was prosecuted for istrative omission by Taiyuan Intermediate Court and Shanxi Superior Court. Illegal infringements in Shanxi and other places have risen as the biggest obstacle to the healthy and orderly development of CBM industry.

图3

4 探矿权采矿权分离制约煤层气发展节奏。

20 年经验表明,勘探开发一体化和滚动发展是煤层气产业的 突出特点。

现行煤层气矿权制度硬性划分勘查、开发阶段,并分设探矿权、采矿权。

矿权人取得煤层气探 矿权、获得探明地质储量,编制开发方案报国家能源局备案后,再到国土资源部申请煤层气采矿证。

申请 采矿证期间,探矿权人的煤层气开发生产作业无法得到保护和支持,经常陷入停滞,煤层气开发利用节奏 被分段式矿权拖累多年。

同时,煤层气勘查面积严重不足,限制了煤层气勘探开发工作空间。

The division of exploration rights and mining rights has restricted the pace of CBM development. 20 years of experiences have showed that exploration and developmentintegration and progressive development are two outstanding characteristics of CBM industry. Current mineral rights system of CBM made a rigid division of exploration and development; in addition, exploration rights and mining rights were separated. After the mining right owners obtain the exploration right and the proven reserves of CBM, they will draw up the development plan and report to National Energy istration for record, and then apply for a CBM Exploitation License from the Ministry of Land and Resources. During the application of exploitation license, due to the shortage of protection and support, the owner‟s development and production of CBM areas has restricted the space for its exploration and development. are often stagnant, which has dragged the pace of the exploration and exploitation of CBM for many years. At the same time, a serious shortage ofCBM exploration 深化改革和依法开采助推有序发展 Deep reform and legal exploration to boost the orderly development of CBM 恢复煤层气开发法律秩序。

贯彻十八届三中全会、四中全会精神,落实依法治国、依法行政,从山西 入手,推至全国,打击违法侵占煤层气探矿权、探明储量财产的行为,追究违法侵权者责任,实现煤层气 依法勘探、依法开发、健康有序发展,并避免由于个别企业对煤层气违法侵权再度牵连部门,维护政 府部门形象。

总结和推广《山西省国土资源厅关于山西西山蓝焰煤层气有限责任公司违法侵权勘查开采煤 层气的处理意见》 (晋国土资函 2013 年 901 号)打击对煤层气违法侵权坚决打击的成功经验,全面建设法 治煤层气产业。

Restoring the laws and ordersof CBMexploration.The legal exploration and development, healthy and orderly development of CBM can be achieved through implementingthe spirit of the Third and the Fourth Plenary Session of the 18th Central Committee of CPC,ruling the country by law and istrating according to law, cracking down infringementsonCBM exploration rights and proven reserves properties, and holding infringers accountable from Shanxi province to the whole country.. Furthermore, the image of the government can be preserved by protecting government departments from the illegal infringement onindividual enterprises. By summarizing and popularizing successful experiences of cracking downCBMinfringementthrough implementing "Suggestions on Illegal CBMExploration and Mining of Shanxi LanyanCBM Corporation, Ltd. from Shanxi Provincial Department of Land and Resources" (Shanxi Provincial Department of Land and Resources No. 901 , 2013) , a legal CBM industry canbe constructed in an all-round way. 深化煤层气矿权改革。

英国煤层气及油气矿权曾分为勘探、生产、评价、开发 4 种许可证。

实践中发 现分段设立矿权证严重限制矿权人勘探开发节奏后,1996 年英国果断进行矿权改革,将多种矿权合并成勘 探开发许可证(PEDL) ,井下抽采瓦斯办理抽采许可证(MDL) ,允许矿权人按照勘探开发一体化思路做出

图4

5 整体投资安排,对勘探开发方案进行必要的审查。

按照十八届三中全会总结国内成功做法,借鉴国外 有益经验精神,将煤层气勘查、开发许可证合并,实行煤层气勘探开发许可证、煤矿瓦斯抽采许可证制度。

] Deepening the reform on CBM mining rights. In the UK, mineral rights of oil and gas were once divided into four kinds of licenses: exploration, production, evaluation and development. After findingthat the segmentation of licenses had severely restricted the exploration and development pace in practice, in 1996the UK carr out mineral rights reform decisively by combining a variety of mineral rights into Petroleum Exploration and Development License (PEDL) and Methane Drainage Licenses (MDL), which not only allowed the owner to make further arrangements in accordance with the integration of exploration and development, but also allowed government to make necessary review on exploration and development plan. Therefore we shouldcombine the permission license of exploitation and development, and implement license granting mechanisms inCBM exploration and coal mine gas extraction by following the successful methods and experiences at home and abroad under the guidance of the Third Plenary Session of the 18th Central Committee of CPC. 深化改革解决煤层气投资发展问题。

20 年实践证明现行未能解决煤层气投资不足和放空问题, 影响了构建本质安全型煤矿的战略方向。

澳大利亚煤层气企业向发电延伸、发电企业向煤层气拓展,最终 实现煤层气与发电协调发展的商业模式值得借鉴。

该商业模式的最大特点是煤层气开发企业向下游发展投 资燃气发电,燃气发电企业往上游发展投资煤层气开发,既解决了煤层气市场问题,又解决了煤层气开发 投资问题。

2000 年新星石油公司并入中国石化,同时解决了新星公司投资不足和中国石化上游薄弱两大难 题,取得了改革促进协调发展的成功经验。

近年来,绿色发展引领燃气发电快速发展。

普遍存在上游 供气业务薄弱的燃气发电集团,响应国家号召投资煤层气、页岩气积极性高涨,但缺乏煤层气资源,缺乏 煤层气区块。

总结新星公司改革模式,借鉴澳大利亚成功经验,建议将中联公司并入上游供气业务薄弱、 拥有煤炭资源的大型燃气发电集团,发挥发电集团利润投资能力较稳定和用气大户的优势,解决煤层气投 资不足、大量放空等难题,实现煤层气产业健康快速发展。

Deepening structural reform to solve CBMinvestment and development problems. 20 years practices have proven that current system cannot solve the problem of high failure rate and investment shortage of CBM.In addition, it has affected strategic direction of constructing safe coal mines. In Australia, a commercial mode of coordinated development between CBM enterprises and power generation enterprises has formed through making them intermingle with each other, which is worth learning. The most important feature of this mode is that CBM development enterprises invest in gas power generation downstream, while gas power enterprises invest in CBM developmentupstream, which can solve the problem of market, development and investment at the same time. In 2000,after Sinopec Star PetroleumCorporation, Ltd. was incorporated into SINOPEC,Star Petroleum‟s investment shortage and SINOPEC‟s upstream weakness have been solved.Meanwhile, successful experience of promoting the coordinated development through structural reform has also been achieved. In recent years, green development has led a rapid development in gas power generation industry. Gas power generation groups with common weak upstream gas supply respond to country‟s call actively, andthey are highly motivated to investin CBM and shale gas.However, there are not enough CBM resources and blocks. After summing up the reform mode of Star Petroleum and the successful experience from Australia, we suggest incorporating CUCBM into the large-scale power generation group with weak upstream gas supplybut rich coalresources so that CUCBM can take advantage

图5

6 of power generation group‟s stable investment ability and large consumption, thereby,problems such as CBMinvestment shortage and high failure rate can be solved,achieving the healthy and rapid development of CBM industry. 摘要:煤层气开发利用事关煤矿安全、清洁低碳能源和节能减排大局。

然而, “十二五”煤层气产量未 完成预定的目标,是制约和法侵权拖累其发展。

“十二五”期间(根据题目这里应该是十三五),必须深 化改革和依法开采助推煤层气开发利用的有序发展。

Abstract: The exploration and exploitation of coal-bed methane (CBM)greatlyconcern the overall situation of coal mine safety, clean and low-carbon energy, and energy saving and emission reduction. However, due to institutional constraints and illegal infringements, CBM output inthe “12th Five-Year” Plan period didn‟t reach the planned target, so inthe next “Five-Year”Plan period, we must deepen reform and carry out legal explorationto boost the orderly development of CBMexploration and exploitation. Key words: CBM; exploration and exploitation; illegal infringements 煤层气开发利用非法侵权 作者简介:洪涛,资源与环境政策研究所能源政策研究室主任、中国自然资源学会政策研究专 业会、高级经济师。

2008 年进入发展研究中心资源与环境政策研究所,2012 年 1 月任资源政策研究室副主任,2014 年 3 月转任能源政策研究室副主任,2015 年 9 月任能 源政策研究室主任。

他的研究领域主要为能源与资源管理与公共政策。

主持或参与过的重要课 题及重大项目有 《中国中长期能源战略》 (2011-2012) 和 《改革的重点领域与推进机制》 (2011) 等,其中《我国石油资源合理开发利用的和政策研究》被评为 2009 年度国研中心优秀课 题。

About the author Hong Tao is the director of Energy Policy Research Office of Research Institute of Resources and Environment Policies, a memberand senior economist of Committee of Policy Research of China Society of Natural Resources. He entered Research Institute of Resources and Environment Policies of Development Research Centre (DRC) of the State Council in 2008 and became the deputy director of Resource Policy Research Office in January 2012.He transferred to the Energy Policy Research Office as the deputy director in March 2014, and thenserved as the director of Energy Policy Research Office in September 2015. His research area mainly concerns management ofenergy, resources and public policy. Major projects he hosted or participated in are “Medium and Long-term Energy Strategy of China” (2011-2012), “Key Areas and Promotion Mechanisms in Reform” (2011) and so on, among which “System and Policy Research on China‟s Rational Exploration and Exploitation of Oil Resources” was awarded as the excellent subject by Development Research Centerof the State Council in 2009. Translated by RenTianci

图6

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