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奥尔夫音乐教学法在学前音乐教育中的应用

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一、学前音乐教育对于儿童的有利影响 让孩子在学前音乐教育中获得感悟和自己对于万事万物的态度。

经过准备工作后笔者认 为其实在学前音乐教育中的奥尔夫音乐教学法还有很大的研究空间, 为了下文的阐述, 本文 的儿童年龄也限定在 3~6 周岁。

(一)学前音乐教育研究背景 对于国外的学前音乐教育来说, 十八世纪已经对此有了非常深刻的认识, 而且随着科学 理性主义思潮的发展, 相关工作者对儿童的学前音乐教育的研究更上一层楼, 相关的理论也 逐渐的得到了完善,尤其在二十世纪之后的时间里,相关人员注重对学习儿童的心理研究, 也促进了儿童音乐教育理论的蓬勃发展。

作为国外“发现儿童”心理研究的第一人卢梭,他 的教育理念基于“人的发展” ,同时注重音乐教育对于儿童的作用。

他也认为儿童对于世界 上事物的看法、想法、感触等等与成人都有很大的不同。

儿童的音乐教育和成人的音乐教育 有很大区别, 其中儿童的音乐教育中主要是鼓励儿童进行自由的创造。

在随后的专家学者的 探索和研究中也不断的提出了,学前音乐教育也重新挖掘了人们自身艺术的闪光点。

在国内的十九世纪, 陶行知先生也将国外的先进儿童教育理念传播到国内来, 其中包括 著名的“六大解放”的观点,其中包括:通过解放儿童的头脑、双手、眼睛、嘴巴、空间和 时间, 来达到培养儿童能力的目的。

同时他也认为进行教育的主要目的是为了培养更具创新 精神的栋梁。

陶行知先生认为通过创造有力的环境来教育儿童,并且培养优秀的教师,在这 各环节中塑造儿童的能力。

教育与生活的关系是密不可分的, 所以学习和实践也是不可分割 的,儿童的培养不光需要引导儿童学习,还需要鼓励儿童实践。

其次陈鹤琴先生也是儿童心 理学方面的音乐教育部分中的先驱,并且他的《儿童心理之研究》在儿童教育中也是非常重 要的文献。

总而言之,人类科技的发展的进步,离不开创新思维,虽然我国相对与欧美国家 我国的学前音乐教育起步较晚, 但是通过积极探索吸取前人的经验教训, 我国的学前音乐教 育课程也会有很大的发展。

(二)我国学前音乐教育课程的现状分析 通过实践和查阅文献, 笔者发现其实我国的学前音乐教育也具有了一百多年的历史, 所 以学前音乐教育课程改革中的培养儿童的创新思维也并不是新的问题和目标, 其实很多专家 学者在这个领域中都有很丰富的研究成果, 其中包括学前音乐教育的根本是为了激发儿童的 创意能力; 其次对于儿童来说创意思维包括天赋也包括后天的培养, 因此学前音乐教育工作 进行的规律是遵守儿童本身特有的创造性;而且通过学前音乐课程,儿童的交际能力、学习 能力、思考能力都会得到很大的提升。

在这个理论中笔者发现,专家是将儿童放在在学前音 乐教育的中心地位。

二、奥尔夫音乐教学法的原理 关于奥尔夫音乐教学法是在二十年代二十年代初出现的, 这个教学理念也是认为, 音乐 并非进行学习的唯一目的, 但是通过学习音乐有助于人们了解自身的精神世界。

而且这样的 教学模式不光仅限于音乐知识的传授, 还有语言和舞蹈的结合, 而且奥尔夫音乐教学的核心 思想就是“原本性” ,让学习的人通过学习音乐慢慢的回归人的生命,而且在这种教学模式

奥尔夫音乐教学法在学前音乐教育中的应用

中不只有基础知识的传授、技术的训练,还需要学习者自主的进行参与、自然而然的获得。

每一个孩子都可以在无忧无虑的状态下进行学习, 并且这样的学习并没有映音乐风格、 音乐 民族的限制,因此这样的教学模式和教学理念正是我国非常需要的,让孩子喜欢音乐、热爱 音乐。

在奥尔夫音乐教学中还非常注重“即兴原则” ,奥尔夫认为“即兴”是非常古老和自 然的音乐表现方法,也是情感表达最为直观的方式。

三、奥尔夫音乐教学法在学前音乐教育的运用 (一)注重儿童天性、因材施教 儿童天性好动,充满好奇,具有探究倾向,拥有和成人不一样的观察视角与思维特征。

例如在进行音乐教学的时候, 教师总会让一些孩子在全体成员面前唱歌, 但是很多儿童非常 的羞涩就比较抗拒这个环节,所以教师需要对“热身”阶段的音乐活动进行创新,比如组织 一个接歌的游戏,准备更多具有趣味性的音乐游戏,这样既进行了教学的“暖场工作” ,又 提高得了儿童的学习兴趣。

让儿童更多的参与进来,不要望而却步,儿童才能在这个广阔的 音乐世界里肆意生长。

教师在教学内容的选择上选择儿歌、谚语、童话故事等等,这样更加 符合孩子的天性,教学效果也会更好。

(二)培养儿童学习的主动性、激发创造力 笔者认为在音乐教育中, 很多专家学者也非常注重对孩子心理的研究, 通过研究便可以 得出这个结论即“兴趣是最好的老师” 。

因为兴趣是一个人进行探究和创新的动力,如果一 个孩子非常喜欢音乐,那么孩子就会乐此不疲、废寝忘食的去学习音乐的相关知识,这也有 利于孩子在音乐的学习中一直处于积极、 主动的学习状态, 孩子在音乐领域具有更加敏 锐的直觉, 积极的思考发现问题并且解决问题。

因此就需要教师在课堂上塑造出自由、 愉快、 民主的学习环境,这将是学生的学习兴趣能否被激发的基础。

而且教师在学前音乐教育中也可以利用音乐、 体育、 文学等手段来发现学生学习音乐的 兴趣,充分的调动学生的积极性和主动性,从而激发学生创作的动力,让学生在创造中发挥 自己的联想能力和想象能力。

如果教育的思维过于单调也会引起学生的反感甚至是抵触情绪, 所以教师在教育过程中既要训练学生的基本功, 还要培养学生的创意思维能力, 让学生理论 结合实践,爱动手、爱动脑提高学习的效率、效果和质量。

通过和研究笔者发现,在学 生的立场上来看,课堂中的独立思考、课外中的独立解决困难,都在一定范围内的培养了学 生的能力,这并不限于创造力和基本功,还包括学生人格与品格的养成,让学生在这个过程 中具有自信心,敢于面对挑战,激流勇进。

教师也需要创造出更加和平与民主的课堂氛围, 给孩子表现自我的机会,也就是遵循上文中的“自主性原则” ,让学生各抒己见,增强与他 人沟通与交流的能力。

四、结语 根据对学前音乐教育的研究背景和奥尔夫音乐教学的原理以及实际教学工作中的运用, 笔者发现奥尔夫音乐教学是一种综合性、 开放性的教学模式, 在教学原理之上每一位教师都 可以根据自己学生的实际情况进行调整,体现不同地区的教学特点。

奥尔夫音乐教学法在学前音乐教育中的应用

The beneficial effects of a, preschool music education for children Let the children in preschool music education in the comprehension and their attitude towards everything. After preparation the author thinks that in fact in preschool music education study of orff music teaching method also has the very big in space, in order to below, this article also limit children's age in 3 ~ 6 years of age. (a) preschool music education background For foreign preschool music education, already have a very deep understanding of the eighteenth century, and along with the development of scientific rationalism ideas, related workers to children's preschool music education research to the next level, related theory also gradually got perfect, especially in the later period of the 20th century, relevant personnel pay attention to the psychological study of children learning, also promote the children's music education theory of vigorous development. As the first "found children" psychological studies abroad Rousseau, his idea of education based on "human development", at the same time pay attention to music education for children. He also believes that children's perception of things in the world, ideas, feelings, etc. And adults are very different. Children's music education and music of adult education have very big distinction, including children's music education major is to encourage children to free creation. In subsequent experts and scholars to explore and study has been put forward, preschool music education and the excavation of the best in their own art. At home in the 19th century, Mr Tao's children will be foreign advanced education idea to spread to the home, including the famous "six big liberation" point of view, including: through the liberation of children's minds and hands, eyes, mouth, space and time, to achieve the goal of cultivating children's ability. At the same time, he also believes that for the purpose of education is to cultivate more innovative spirit pillar. Mr Tao xingzhi thinks by creating a strong environment for children education, and cultivate excellent teachers, in which each link in the ability of children. The relationship between education and life are inseparable, so the study and practice is also an integral, the cultivation of the children not only need to guide children to learn, you also need to encourage children practice. Second Mr Chen Heqin and children's psychology of music education in part, and his children's psychological research is also very important literature in the children's education. To sum up, the development of human science and technology progress, cannot leave the innovation thinking, although our country compared with Europe and the United States our country preschool music education started late, but by actively explore absorbing predecessors' experiences and lessons of our country's preschool music education courses also have very big development. (2) our country preschool music education course analysis of the status quo Through practice and review of literature, the author discovered that in fact our country preschool music education also has a history of more than one hundred years, so the preschool music education in the curriculum reform to cultivate children's creative thinking is not a new problem and goal, in fact, many experts and scholars in this area are very rich research achievements, including preschool music education is fundamental to stimulate children's creative ability; Secondly for children's creative thinking, including the cultivation of the talent also includes the day after tomorrow, so preschool music education work of law is to observe the children itself unique creative; And through preschool music courses, children's communicative ability, learning ability, thinking ability will get a lot of ascension. In this theory the author found that the expert is put children in preschool music education centre.

奥尔夫音乐教学法在学前音乐教育中的应用

Second, the principle of orff music teaching method About orff music teaching method is in the 20 s and early 20 s, the teaching idea is also believe that music is not the only purpose of study, but by learning to music can help people understand their own spiritual world. And such teaching model not only limited to imparting music knowledge, and the combination of language and dance, and the core of the orff music teaching idea is "original nature"www.fsjct.net www.sanheshun.net, people learn through learning music slowly return to people's lives, and in this kind of teaching mode is not only the basic knowledge of teaching, technical training, also need to participate in learner autonomy, naturally. Every child can learn in a carefree state, and the study did not hit music style and music national restrictions, so the teaching mode and teaching idea is very need in our country, let children love music, love of music. In orff music teaching also very pay attention to the principle of "improvisation", Carl orff's thought of "improvisation" is a very old and natural method of music performance, and emotional expression is the most intive way. Third, orff music teaching method in preschool music education (a) pay attention to children's nature, according to their aptitude Children's nature and active, full of curiosity, to explore the tendency, and adult different viewpoints and thinking characteristics. For example, in music teaching, the teacher always let some of the children singing in front of all the members, but many children very shy is resist this link, so teachers need to "warm up" innovation stage music activities, such as organization one by song game, ready to more interesting music game, both in the teaching of "warm" field work, and improve children's interest in learning. Let children more involved, not deter, children can grow in this vast music world wantonly. Nursery teachers on the choice of teaching content selection, proverb, fairy tales, and so on, so more in line with the children's nature, the teaching effect will be better. (2) to cultivate children's learning initiative and creativity The author believes that in music education, many experts and scholars also very pay attention to the research on children's mental, through research can draw the conclusion that "interest is the best teacher". Because interest is a person of probing and creative power, if a child like music very much, the child will be enjoyed and sleepless nights to learn the related knowledge of music, this also is helpful for children in the study of music has been in a positive and active learning, children will have more keen intion in the field of music, positive thinking to discover problems and solve problems. Therefore requires the teacher in class model a freedom, happy and democratic learning environment, this will be the basis of the students' interest in learning can be inspired. And teachers in preschool music education also can use in music, sports, literature and other means to find out students' interest in learning music, fully mobilize students' enthusiasm and initiative, so as to stimulate students' creative power, lets the student in the creation of their own power association www.bshaikuo.com www.gpsdvd.cn and imagination. If education thinking too drab can also cause students dislike and even resistance, so the teachers in the process of education is to train students' basic skills, but also cultivate students' creative thinking ability, lets the student theory combined with practice, love begin, improve learning efficiency, effectiveness and quality. Through the investigation and study, the author found that the students' position, independent thinking, independent in extracurricular to solve the difficulties in the classroom, all within a certain range of cultivating the students' ability, this is not the

奥尔夫音乐教学法在学前音乐教育中的应用

preserve of creativity and basic skills, also includes the formation of students' personality and character, let the students in the process has the self-confidence, dare to face challenges, surging ahead. Teachers also need to create a more peaceful and democratic classroom atmosphere, to give their children the opportunity to express yourself, which is to follow the above principle of "autonomy", lets the student views, enhance the ability of communication and exchanges with others. Four, conclusion According to preschool music education research background and the orff music teaching principle and the application of practical teaching, the author found that orff music teaching is a comprehensive and open teaching mode, on the teaching principle of every teacher can be adjusted according to the actual situation of students, embody the teaching characteristics of different areas.

奥尔夫音乐教学法在学前音乐教育中的应用

奥尔夫音乐教学法在学前音乐教育中的应用

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