1.Communication: communication is the transfer of meaning. It is mutual exchange of understanding 2.What can communication help us? Better understand: get information you need Achieve your goals: get support from others 3.5 control functions of management A.planning, organizing, coordinating, commanding, controlling (Henri Fayol) B.Planning, organizing, staffing, leading, controlling 4.Management&communication (1)Communication is essence of management (2)No matter which role the managers perform, they cannot succeed without effective communication. (3)The basic functions of management cannot be performed well without effective communication. 5.Managerial communication(MC) Significance: Communication capability heavily influences your career development to some extent Natures of MC: Media,Content(inform,thoughts,emotion,attitude),Philosophy,Special barriers Elements of MC:Information source:sender,subjective /Audience:receiver, objective /Goal /Context /Message /Media:speak, write, call, send e-mail, meeting/Feed back 6.Fundamental qualities of effective Communication 有效沟通的四大特点 (1)Accuracy (2)Clarity (3)Brevity (4)Vigor 7.Supportive Communication 建设性沟通 (1)The foundation of effective communication (2)To solve the problem (3)To convey the message accurately (4)To maintain good relations 8.Critical Errors in communication (大题） (1)The assumption-observation error:An assumption occurs when people accept something as valid without requiring proof (2)The failure to discriminate: The failure to perceive and communicate situation. The failure can lead to negled of differences and overemphasis of similarities. (3)The allness error:Allness and process of abstraction.Abstracting is the process of focusing on some details and omitting others. 9.Technologically Mediated Communication 技术辅助的沟通 10.Channel: the medium used to transmit the message 11.Channel of message:A general view:(1)formal VS informal (2) written VS oral 12.Ways to communication:A .one-way:(1)letter or memorandum(2)report or proposal(3)web page or blog (4)text messaging B.two-way:(1)face to face:in person/traditional group/video meeting (2)not face to face:telephone call/ voice mail message 13.Technologically Mediated Communication
(1)Any communication interaction using technology as primary channel (2)Key channel characteristics: a.Bandwidth: is the information capacity of the available sense channels(visual,auditory,tactile,gustatory,olfactory) b.Perceived personal closeness 感知个人亲切程度:Telecomunications may actually increase a person’s sense of closeness. c.Feedback:feedback connects the sender and receiver together so they truly communicate with each other. d.A symbolic interactionist perspective 符号象征互动论:the media that managers choose use for communication may be based partially on symbolic reasons. 14.Matching the technology and the message:(1)Not all technology is appropriate for all types of messages (2)Criteria for choosing a channel 15/The correct channel: efficient 16Routine messages errors:(1)punctuation errors(2)word use errors(3)grammar errors 17.Adapting messages to the audience: Strategies of messages to be sent-Maximum benefit 18.Audience Adaptation 受众适应:In business communication,attitude plays a significant role in achieving business goals. (1)Basis of your attitude (2)Anticipating question (3)Stressing reader benefits (4)Avoiding use first person (5)Diction “our” 19.Strategies:(1)Direct strategy: is used for messages conveying good news or neutral information (2)Indirect strategy : Bad news, negative messages 20.The difference between listening and hearing Hearing: mechanical,automatic,difficult to avoid. Usually requires little special physical or metal effort. Listening: concentrated effort; require both physical and mental effort 21.Benefits of good listening (大题) 1.Gather information for good decisions 2.Make a person more dependable;reduce errors 3.Gain employee respect, trust and linking 4.Enable the manager to be better informed overall 5.Learn about the environment, avoid embarrassment 6.Promote mutual understanding; gain customer loyalty
22.the steps during the preparation stage:(general techniques for listening)(大题) Answer: To summarize,when listening, a manager should first determine the level of listening he needs to achieve----casual, factual,empathic.(listening goal,once done it is important to prepare physically and psychologically to listening) 1.Pick up the best possible place. When it is not always possible to change the place, the manager should not overlook facilities when available. 2.Pick up the possible time.As with the place, it is not always possible to change the time.However,the astute manager must be careful not to eliminate more favorable opportunities. 3.Think about personal biases that may be present(A manager ’s personal biases may also have a drastic effect on the outcome of the communication.) 4.Review the listening objectives (Selecting the best time and place helps one reduce internal and external noise.Because time influences the psychological barriers of motivation,emotion,and willingness,the choice of time may significantly affect the outcome of the conversation.) 23.Techniques for active listening 积极性倾听的六大技巧（简答题） 1.Identify main and supporting points 2.Identify organization pattern 3.Summarize the message 4.Use the message,use mnemonics 5.Personalize the message 6.Take notes 24.Techniques for interactive listening 互动性倾听六大技巧（简答题） 1.Identify main and supporting points 2.Identify organization pattern 3.Summarize the message 4.Visualize the message,use mnemonics 5.Personalize the message 6.Take notes 7.Paraphing 8.Questioning 25.The importance of nonverbal communication(大题) Answer: Nonverbal factors are clearly a crucial element of managerial communication. Without nonverbal communication as a source of information, must of the richness and much of the meaning in messages would be lost. 1.with the exception of so-called emblems nonverbal signals rarely have one set meaning.Rather, they usually add to the message’s meaning. 2.Nonverbal signals vary from culture to culture, and region to region, in their meaning 3.When nonverbal signals contradict verbal ones, the nonverbal are usually the ones to trust.
26.Six functions for nonverbal communication (论述题) 1.Nonverbal signals that complement the verbal message repeat it typically,these signals accompany what is being said. 2.Those nonverbal signals that accent call our attention to a matter under discussion 3.The nonverbal signals that contradict are less obvious.These are usually sent unintentionally by the subconscious to say nonverbally the opposite of what is being said verbally. 4.Repeating occurs when we have already sent a message using one formal of communication and wish to emphasize the point being made 5.Regulating the fifth purpose Burbinster suggests ,is a subtle and important one.It occurs during conversations to signal to our partner to slow ,stop and even wait your turn and other person know when we are ready to listen to speak. 6.Substituting is a less common nonverbal signal than the others,when we cannot send a message by cues, we use it. 27.Personal appearance:Dress is an integral part of the first impression we from on meeting someone and is often the key to initial credibility .Be neither the first nor the last to adopt a fashion. 28.的四大特点（简答） 1.conflict involves at least two parties 2.Conflict develops from perceived mutually exclusive goals 3.Conflict involves parties with different values or perceptions 4.Conflict ends when each side fells it has won or lost 29.产生的原因（简答） 1.the line of authority in an organization can encourage conflict 2.the distribution of the limited resources available in an organization is another source of conflict 3.diverse goals are a third source of organization conflict 4.the inaccurate or illogical perception of a situation causes unnecessary conflict 30.problem-solving The key to this strategy is that it follows a mutual problem solving approach rather than a combative one. Managers engaged in this type of problem solving assume a high- quality mutually acceptable solution is possible. The problem-solving strategy is the most desirable. The win-win strategy. The manager want to effectively use this approach must hold a series of beliefs: 1.cooperation is better than competition 2.Parties can be trusted 3.Status differences can be minimized 4.Mutually acceptable solution can be found 31.Steps for problem-solving 1.Maximize environmental conditions A.review and adjust conditions B.review and adjust perceptions C.review and adjust attitude 2.The actual problem-solving strategy A.Define the problem B.Analyze the problem C.Brainstorm alternatives D.Develop criteria for a good solution E.Find the best match