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最全面纲要式 大学英语语法

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大学英语 I 倒装 1. 否定倒装:常见的否定词和具有否定意义的词组有:at no time, barely, by no means, few, hardly/scarcely(when), in nether case, in no case, in no time in no way, in/under no circumstances, in vain, little, much/even still less, neither, no more, nor, not once, not only, never, no, no longer, no sooner(than), nowhere, not, not a soul, not infrequently, not a single word, not until, on no account, rarely, seldom, under no condition, etc. 放在句首,主谓倒装 E.g. At no time will China be the first to use nuclear weapons. 2. 固定倒装 neither, nor, so Notes: —Neither of them is correct. "neither" 是主语的一部分或主语时, 不倒装。

—Copper conducts electricity, so it does. —If you don't go to the party, neither will I.如果句中有 if 或 when 引导的从句,只用 neither,不用 nor。

3.让步倒装:Difficult though the task was, they managed to accomplish it in time. Notes: 1) though 可用可不用倒装, although 不能用; as 必须用 。

Hard as a diamond is, it is quite easy to drill a hole in it with a laser. Much as I like chocolate, I have never eaten a single bar of it since I began to put on weight, 2) though/although 不与 but 连用 3) Strong man that he is, he felt tired out after the long journey.  Be it rainy or sunny, I 'll go out.  Say what you will, I won't change my mind.  Be it ever so late, I must do another experiment. ________, I must complete my math assignments. A It be ever so late B Be it ever so late C It is ever so late D So late it be ever 4. 副词倒装: here, there, down, up and down , etc .放在句首, 主语是名词时。

Note: Here he comes. 5. only 以及 only 开头的介词短语及状语从句(only when, only in/by/on/after, often, many a time ) 至于句首, 部分倒装。

Note: only 修饰主语不倒 : Only Peter wants to go. 6. So …that, such… that E.g. So successful have they been that they are moving to Bong Street. Such a man is he that I don't want to see any more of him. So badly did he write the letter that I could hardly read it. 句首为 many a time, to such an extent, to such a degree, to such extremes, to such lengths, to such a point, with every justification, with good reason 等状语时, 句子需要部分倒装。

7. 强调部分倒装: E.g. At the side of the hill stood an old house. 主语补语置于句首时,需要全部倒装。

Best of all was the Christmas pudding. 8. 比较句中的倒装: the more… the more E.g. The faster an object moves, the greater is the air resistance. 第 1 页 共 50 页

Notes: 一些类比句也用倒装  Reading is to the mind as is exercise to the body.  Reading is to the mind what exercise to the body.  Books are to mankind, _____ memory is to the individual. A that B what C whichever D as 9. 虚拟倒装: were, should, had 之句首, 省略 if George would certainly have attended the meetings ____. A has he not had a flat tire B if he hadn't a flat tire C had he not had a flat tire D if he hasn't had a flat tire II. 非限定性定语从句 1. 引导非限定性定语从句的 which 前可根据句意加入不同的介词。

 It had taken him nine months, of which the sailing time was 226 days.(unit2/bookone)  Protein are made up of various combinations of basic substances call amino acids , of which 20 are known.  Living in the central Australian desert has its problems, of which obtaining water is not the least.  You will want two trees about ten feet apart, from which to suspend your tent. 例:Many attended the conference, a brief report_____ has been published. A of which B which C of that D for which 2. 当 which 作非限制性关系从句中的主语时, 其后不能再加别的代词.  The magazine has a hundred and fifty pages, which (they) are full of photographs.  The coat has two pockets, of which one of them one of which contains a wallet.  There are two major problems linked with ic plants, the first of which concerns nuclear waste. 3. (6.)An old friend from abroad, ______ I was expecting to stay with me, telephoned from the airport. A that B whom C who D which III. 替代 1. One, ones 1) one, ones 可指人或物 a. 只能代替可数名词。

例如: I haven’t got a coat. I’ll have to buy one. I have a new coat and several old ones. b. one 前面有修饰语时,常用 a/ an。

例如: I’d prefer the large box to a small one. c. ones 前面一般都带有修饰语,如上例中的 several old ones. 又如: Studious children are more likely to succeed than lazy ones. d. one/ ones 后面常跟修饰语或形容词从句。

例如: His life was one devoted to the education of handicapped children. The students who do best in the examinations are not always the ones with the best brains. This book is the one which has recently been awarded Pulitzer Prize. 2) one/ones 的省略 第 2 页 共 50 页

a. one 前面的形容词为最高级, 或 one 前面有 this, that 和 another 等修饰时, one 常可省去。

例如: Of all those brothers, John is the most handsome (one). I broke the coffee pot, so we have to buy another (one). I like this dictionary better than that (one). b. ones 前面有 these/those 时,ones 常可省去。

例如: These books are mine while those(ones) are my brother ’s. 1. that, those that 用来代替前面已出现的可数名词或不可数名词时,后面通常跟有修饰语; that 相 当于 the one 时,只能指物。

例如: The engine of your car is better than that of mine. No bread eaten by man is so sweet as that earned by his own labor. those 代替可数名词的复数, 即可指人, 也可指物; those 后面一般跟有修饰语, those 相 当于 the ones。

例如: The results obtained agree approximately with those expected. The students I am teaching this year are much more diligent than those I taught last year. Cf: The student I am teaching this year is much more diligent than the ones I taught last year. 2. do, do so do, does, did 可代替前面已出现过的动词或谓语。

例如: Use a book as a bee does (=uses) a flower. —Who broke the glass? —I did (=I broke the glass) do so 代替前面已出现过的动词以及有关的后续成分。

例如: You told me to visit her and I have done sp. Mark pained his house. I’m told this is merely because his neighbor did so (=painted his house) last year. 注:a. 句中的 do 为 doing 时,往往用 so doing. 例如: The rescue crew attempted to land a helicopter on the house roof; but the fire prevented them from so doing. b. 有时 so 在句中可代替主语补语或宾语补语。

例如: Prices at present are reasonably stable, and will probably remain so. (=stable, 主语 补语) If he’s a criminal, it’s his parents who have made him so. (=a criminal. 宾语补语) c. so 还可有诸如: less so, more so, so much so 等搭配。

例如: Although the old lady was exhausted, she was less so (=exhausted) than we feared. The weather was hot in Cairo—so much so (=hot) that we stayed indoors all day. 3. so, not 代替 that-从句 1) so, not 常出现在某些动词后面代替整个 that 从句。

a. so 代替肯定从句 —Do you think Tom will succeed? —I think so. 在 I am afraid 结构中常用 so 代替 that-从句。

例如: —Has the news reached home yet? 第 3 页 共 50 页

—I am afraid so. 注: 在 ask 和 know 后不用 so 取代肯定从句 b. not 代替否定从句,如上面两句的否定回答即为: —I think not —I am afraid not 可以用于这一结构的动词还有:appear, believe, expect, guess, hope, imagine, presume, say, seem, suppose, suspect, tell 等 2) 在 it appears 与 it seems 的句型中也可以用 so 代替 that-从句。

例如: —There must be a road accident. —It appears so. —He might be in trouble. —It seems so 也可将 so 放在句首,如:so it appears, so it seems 等 3) so 放在句首代替 that-从句 a. 主、谓语可以倒装。

例如: — Oxford will win the boat race, at least, so all my Oxford friends say. — And so say most of the sports writer, too. b. 主、谓语也可以不倒装。

例如: —So most of the sports writers say, too. 有时也用 if so 代替整个从句。

例如: —Tom may not be free tomorrow. —If so, he will not come to us. IV 主谓一致 1. 以-s 结尾的名词作主语的主谓一致问题 1) 以-s 结尾的疾病名称和游戏名称 arthritis (关节炎), bronchitis (支气管炎), rickets (软骨病) ,mumps(腮腺炎) , diabetes(糖尿病)等,这类名词通常作单数用 但有一些疾病名称既可做单数也可做复数用。

例如: Generally, measles (麻疹)occurs in children. Measles are sometimes caused by a tapeworm (绦虫). Rickets is/are caused by malnutrition (营养不良). 表示游戏名称的名词通常作单数用。

例如: Darts (投镖游戏)is essentially a free and easy game. Marbles (打弹子游戏)is one of the oldest of games and was not confined to children. 但也有个别表示游戏名称的名词做复数用。

例如: Cards (打纸牌)are not allowed here. 当 darts, marbles 等用于做这些游戏所用的镖或弹子等意义时, 其复数形式仍做 复数用。

例如: Three darts (三支镖)are thrown at each turn. Marbles (各种弹子)vary in kind and quality. 2) 以-ics 结尾的学科名称 某些以-ics 结尾的学科名称, 如 physics (物理学) 、 mathematics(数学)、 mechanics 第 4 页 共 50 页

(机械学) 、 optics (光学) 、 acoustics (声学) 、 politics (学) 、 statistics (统计学) 、 economics (经济学) 、linguistics(语言学) 、athletics(体育学) 、tactics(兵法)等,通常作单数用。

但若这类名词表示“学科”以外的其他意义,便可做复数用。

My mathematics (运算能力)is/are rather shaky. Athletics (体育运动)have been greatly promoted at his college. The acoustics (音响效果)in the new concert hall are faultless. The tactics (策略)employed in this campaign were above reproach. (无可指责). The economics (经济效益)of the project are still being considered. 3) 以-s 结尾的地理名称 某些以-s 结尾的地理名称, 如果是国名, 如 the United States, the United Nations, the Netherlands 等, 尽管带有复数词尾,但系单一实体,故作单数用。

但若不是国名,而是群岛、山脉、海峡、瀑布等地理名称,通常做复数用。

例如: The West Indies (西印度群岛), apart from the Bahamas (巴哈马群岛) , are commonly divided into two parts. The Himalayas (喜马拉雅山脉)have a magnificent variety of plant and animal life. The Straits of Gibraltar (直布罗陀海峡)have not lost their strategic importance. The Niagara Falls (尼亚加拉大瀑布)are perhaps the most famous waterfall in the world. 4) 其他以-s 结尾的名词 英语中有一些有两个部分组成的物体名称通常是以-s 结尾,如 scissors(剪子) ,pincers (钳子),glasses, shorts (短裤) ,trousers, suspenders (吊带裤)等。

这一类名词,如果 不带“一把” 、 “一副” 、 “一条”等单位词而单独使用,通常作复数。

如果带单位词,则由单位词的单、复数形式决定动词的单、复数形式。

例如: One pair of scissors isn’t enough. Two pairs of pliers, one large and one small, are missing from my tool box. 英语中还有一些以-s 结尾的名词,如 archives (档案) ,arms(武器) ,clothes(衣服), contents (内容,目录),eaves (屋檐) ,fireworks(焰火) ,goods (货物),minutes (记录) , morals (道德,品行),remains (遗体) ,stairs, suburbs, thanks, wages 等,通常作复数。

但也有少数这类名词作单、复数均可: His whereabouts (行踪)were/was known only to his personal staff. The dramatics (舞台艺术)of the performance were/was marvelous. 凡是由-ings 结尾的名词, 如 clippings (剪下来的东西) , diggings (掘出的东西), earnings, filings(锉屑) ,lodgings (租住的房间) , surroundings, sweepings(扫拢的垃圾)等,通常 作复数用。

例如: The clippings of the hedges are usually burnt. The sweepings of the godown (仓库)have been disposed of. 但也有例外, 如 tidings (消息)既可作复数,也可作单数用: Good tidings have cheered them up. The tidings has come a little too late. 还有一些以-s 结尾的单、 复数同形的名词, 如 barracks (营房), headquarters (总部) , means(方 法、手段),series(系列),species(种类),works(工厂)等,随后动词的单、复数形式取决 于这些名词是用作单数,还是用作复数。

例如: A barracks was stormed ()by the enemy troops. Two barracks in the suburbs have been surrounded. 第 5 页 共 50 页

A headquarters was set up to direct the operation (指挥作战). Their headquarters are in Paris. The only means to achieve success is to appeal to arms. (诉诸武力). All means have been tr out to increase agricultural production. A series of pre-recorded tapes has been prepared for language lab use. There are two series of readers: one for beginners and one for advanced students. A new species of mammal (哺乳动物)has been found. Altogether, about 450 species of flatfish (比目鱼)are known. 但有少数这类的名词用作单数和用作复数意义不同。

例如: What’s the odds? (有什么要紧?相当于 What does it matter?) The odds are against us. (我们成功的机会很小。

相当于 We are not likely to succeed.) 又如 remains 用作“遗体”意义时,随后的动词通常都用复数: His remains lie in the churchyard. The martyr ’s remains were bur at the foot of the hill. 但做“遗迹”或“剩余物”解释时,可做复数或单数用: Here is the remains of a temple. The remains of the meal were/was fed to the dog. 2. 以集体名词作主语的主谓一致问题 1)通常作复数的集体名词 有些集体名词, 如 police, people, cattle, militia(义勇军, 自卫队), poultry (家禽) , vermin (害虫)等, 通常作复数,随后的动词用复数。

2)通常作不可数名词的集体名词 又有一些集体名词, 如 foliage (树或植物叶) , machinery, equipment, furniture, merchandise (商品), 通常作不可数名词,随后的动词用单数。

3)既可作单数也可做复数的集体名词 还有一些集体名词,如 army, audience, band, board, clan, class, club, committee, company, congress, crew (全体船员或机组人员), crowd, family, firm, flock, gang, government, group, herd, jury, majority, minority, orchestra, party, public, staff, swarm, team, troop 等, 既可作单 数,也可做复数用。

如将各该名词所表示的集体视为一个整体,则动词用单数。

如将侧 重点放在组成集体的成员上,动词用复数。

比较: That group (or platoon(排) or squad(班,小队))of soldiers is a top-notch (最好 的)fighting unit. That group (or platoon or squad) of soldiers have the best ratings of individual performance. That herd of cows and calves is the healthiest the farm has had in some time. That herd of cows and calves are moving toward the sheds by twos and threes. 4) a committee of 等+复数名词 如果主语是由“a committee of/ a panel of/ a (the) board of + 复数名词”构成,随后 的动词通常用单数。

3. 以并列结构作主语的主谓一致问题 2) 如果作主语的并列结构不是指两个或两个以上的人或物,而是表示单数意义, 则动词用单数。

例如: Ham and eggs is a good breakfast. The hammer and sickle(镰刀)is no longer flying from the tall flagpole. 第 6 页 共 50 页

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